"HI! I haven't read all the responses here, so this is just an answer to an original post. I'm sorry for the length of this post. And please believe me when I say I mean no offense, I just want to help.
Ok first, I am a Christian. Your first question, about the God of Love and the God of justice, I don't know the full conversation that you and your friend had so I'm not certain exactly what you were talking about but, I know that God is both loving and Just. If this is confusing, think of it this way.
Say that when I was younger, I was fascinated by fire. I always wanted to play with matches or candles, etc. Now, my parents ( obviously) would spank me whenever I did and I got really mad at them. I also was a bit hurt because I didn't " feel" loved. However, as I got older I realized that it was because they loved me, they showed me what was the wrong and right thing to do, and that kind of love is based on something more than feelings. I didn't feel like they loved me, because I didn't have absolute freedom, but In the long run, would it have been " loving" to let me burn myself? I might be thinking of love as a friendship thing, say if my parents let me go to wild parties every night, because they loved me and wanted me to have a good time, but I came home sick as a dog from boozing or whatever. They would be the" cool parents" but would that be real love? God gives us the kind of love we need, not necessarily the kind we want. He could not be truly " loving" if He was not also "Just".
As to the second part of your question,
"And then there's this idea that if you do not believe in Jesus Christ,aka the son of God, you are condemned to Hell? Okay, I'm sorry but where is the 'love' and 'justice' in that action? What are the possible justifications behind such a belief?"
I say this in love , giving you the truth.
That is what the Bible states, and what I believe I is true. Many people have asked how that can be " fair" or " just" and this is what I say. First, when the world began, God made His creation, and gave Humans free will. That was His love. Then, He gave them one command, not to eat fro the tree of good and evil. Adam and Eve, had a choice, obey God's only command and live their lives in paradise, or they could fall into temptation and disobey, ( like me and matches, they could either chose to do whatever they wanted, or simply obey and stay away from harm.) They chose to disobey, showing that humans have a predisposition to disobedience/sin. God banished them from the Garden. That was Just.
The world fell into sin. Sin is the inherent nature of all humans, and God, being just has a punishment for sin: hell.
It has nothing to do with how much you've sinned or how " badly" . NO human is perfect on his own and will sin. God does not rate sin he just passes judgment on sin in general. That is just.
But, He is also loving, so He provided a simple, universal answer to human's sins. Jesus. He sent Jesus, to be a sacrifice for all our sins. God says , believe that Jesus was God, died rose again, and confess Him as your Lord and savior, then you may be completely forgiven of any sin you have done, or may do In the future; believing Jesus existed is not it. He does not want us to continue sinning, but to live as close to Godly( perfect) lives as we can. Those who believe , are called "Christians", but it is not a religion, it is simply a belief. When you believe in God, and what Jesus is and did, you will want to live a better life, that is why Christian's talk about Good works, but say someone is dying and then believes and submits to Christ, he will not be condemned because of a lack of good works.
It is God's universal system. I believe it is just, because it is simple( so that anyone can understand) , inclusive ( accepts anyone from any lifestyle) and singular. What I mean by that is, it is consistent. It is like a math problem. 2+2=4 . One problem : sin. One solution: Belief in the sacrifice and sovereignty of Jesus. I understand how some may say " it's not fair, so you're telling me there is only one option?" but I believe it is fair, because, there is only one option. It's like if a teacher gave you a homework assignment that needed an answer but didn't tell you how to get there , or said " do whatever you want and find multiple answers, but there may be more than one, and when you do come up with something, I'm not going to tell you if you are right or not" would that be fair? Would you feel assurance? No. then why do people say God not fair, because He is clear cut? Right way : Belief. Wrong way: disbelief. That is fair. That is just.
I feel assured in my Christianity, because of it's being simple and direct. If I was given multiple roads to try, I would always be wondering whether I had gotten the right one. Christian's are sometimes looked down upon because of saying " there is one way", but we don't say it as a gloat, or to make other's look bad. If you wanted helpful critiques on your artwork, but all anyone said was " very nice" no matter what you did, how would you learn anything? We say " there is one way" because we want you to know about it. It's the same as someone saying " this is how eyes are drawn" . It looks like this, it is this… it is truth. And we just want people to know, all the more because of what He has done for us. I do not feel superior to you because I am a Christian, I am still a sinful wretch, but I am forgiven , and I know the way of forgiveness, and I want to share it.
I hope this helps and I truly meant it in all kindness. I pray God will give you clarification and that you may find it in your heart to believe in Jesus the only way. May God Bless; truly, May God bless."